- Stochastic processes and thermodynamics. Large deviations vs. linear response theory – includes but not limited to: A long-standing question in GENERIC (dissipation potentials vs brackets) and important for computer simulations. The fluctuation theorem and the more recent thermodynamic uncertainty relation are examples. Non-Gaussian fluctuations and nonlinear effects. How to derive thermodynamics from microscopic theories, preferably in a robust way? Stochastic trajectories and their fluctuations. Implications for small systems and their fluctuations.
- Foundation, theories, and philosophy of thermodynamics – includes but not limited to: There are so many theories. What is in common? What are the essential differences? What structures are the most important? Which theories are rather historical? Is there any connection with a general theory of knowledge? Definition of reversible vs irreversible. Do the theories fit into a hierarchy in the sense of a model reduction? Are the differences testable?
- Definition and origin of entropy – includes but not limited to: What is entropy? Is there a unique definition? Quantum, black hole, phenomenological, information, relative entropy (Kullback-Leibler divergence) and its generalizations (f-divergence, Tsallis or Reyni entropy), non-extensive entropies in general, etc., what do they have in common? Is any of them the most general? How is the entropy related to the stability of state, to the material constitutive relations, and to the time irreversibility of real processes?
- Numerics for thermodynamics and thermodynamics for numerics – includes but not limited to: What are the best numerical schemes well preserving thermodynamics? And what about numerical schemes inspired by thermodynamics?
- Thermodynamics on small scales – includes but not limited to: Different frameworks and what they provide. Statistics of small systems, e.g. Hill's approach. Nanothermodynamics. Small systems may require non-canonical ensembles for statistical mechanics (such as the “Gaussian ensemble”, which is energy penalized) and thermodynamic potentials then change.
- Where are the limits of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium situations? – includes but not limited to: Absence of thermodynamic (variational) principles for nonequilibrium steady states? Thermodynamics with long-range interactions, active matter, and phase-transitions?
- Biothermodynamics – includes but not limited to: Can nonequilibrium thermodynamics provide insights into such complex phenomena? Entropy balance of earth, the effect of CO2 emissions, etc. Consequences of entropy production for chemical reaction systems. Self-organization phenomena. Prigogine's legacy. Active matter.
- Machine learning and thermodynamics – includes but not limited to: Interpretation of deep learning in thermodynamic terms. Machine learning inspired by thermodynamics or preserving it. Data-driven modeling, identification of constitutive relations, model reduction.